‘Economics: Agriculture for WBCS Mains‘
The economic contribution of agriculture to India’s GDP is steadily declining with the country’s broad-based economic growth.
Types of Crops
- Also known as Monsoon / Summer Crops
- Requires plenty of water
- Require long hot weather for growth
- Sown – May – July , Harvest – Sep – Oct
- Major Crops :Paddy, Sugarcane, Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Cotton, Pulses, Groundnut, Soybean, Sunflower, Tea, Coffee, Rubber, Sesame, Guar etc.
- Also known as Winter Season Crops
- Requires less water
- Require cold weather for growth
- Sown -Oct – Nov, Harvest – Feb – April
- Major Crops :Wheat, Gram, Potato, Peas, Oil seeds (Rapeseed, linseed), Mustard etc.
- Sown between Rabi & Kharif crops i.e. from March to June
- Requires warm dry weather for growth & longer day length for flowering
- Major Crops : Seasonal fruits & vegetables (Musk melon, Water melon, Cucumber, China Paddy, Gourds, Fodder crops
Types of Agriculture in India:
There are different types of farming activities performed in India which are as follows:
- Subsistence farming is a type of farming in which nearly all the crops or livestock raised are used to maintain the farmer and farmer’s family leaving little.
- Mixed farming is an agricultural system in which a farmer conducts different agricultural practice together, such as cash crops and livestock
- The aim is to increase income through different sources and to complement land and labour demands across the year.
- Shifting cultivation means migratory shifting agriculture.
- Under this system, a plot of land is cultivated for a few years and then, when the crop yield declines because of soil exhaustion and the effects of pests and weeds, is deserted for another area.
- Here the ground is again cleared by slash-and-burn methods, and the procedure is repeated.
- Shifting cultivation is predominant in the forest areas of Assam (Known as Jhum), Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Arunchal Predesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh (Podu).
- This is a system of farming in which the farmer uses the limited amount of labour and capital on relatively large area.
- This type of agriculture is practiced in countries where population size is small and land is enough.
- This is a system of farming in which the cultivator uses larger amount of labour and capital on a relatively small area.
- This type of farming is performed in countries where the population to land ratio is high i.e. population is big and land is small.
- In this type of agriculture cash crops are mainly cultivated.
- A single crop like rubber, sugarcane, coffee, tea is grown.
- These crops are major items of export.
Commercial crops are those crops which are produced for trade purpose and not for self consumption by the farmers. It includes – Oil-seeds crops, Sugar crops, Fibre crops, Narcotic crops, beverage crops.
- The increase in oil-seeds production was due to ‘Yellow Revolution’.
- The progress in increase of fish production was called ‘Blue Revolution’.
- Assam is the biggest tea producer in the country.
- Cuba known as the Sugar Bowl of the world, Here, sugar is made of Beetroot.
PL 480 Programme:
- After independence, India relied on food crop supplies from the United States under Public Law 480 (PL-480) against rupee payments.
- The full name is Public Law 480 also known as “Food for Peace” is a funding avenue by which US food can be used for Overseas Aid.
The Green Revolution in India:
- The Green Revolution in India refers to a period when agriculture in India improved due to the adoption of novel methods and technology in agriculture.
- It was introduced as a package programme with seed-water-fertilizerpesticide-technology components and was originally called High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP). It was launched in Kharif of 1966-67 with an objective to attain self-sufficiency in food by 1970-71.
- The key leadership role played by the Indian agricultural scientist M. S. Swaminathan together with many others, earned him the popularly used title ‘Father of Green Revolution of India’.
- Within India, this started in the early 1960s and led to an increase in food grain production, especially in Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh during the early phase. The main development was higher-yielding varieties of wheat, for developing rust resistant strains of wheat.
- The term “Green Revolution” was first used in 1968 by then USAID director William Gaud. “Father of the Green Revolution”- Norman Borlaug, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970.
- ‘Father of Green Revolution of India’- M. S. Swaminathan
Prevailing Conditions before the introduction of Green Revolution:
- Rising population & huge outlays towards planned industrialization put long term pressures on Indian agriculture which resulted in massive demand.
- To meet food shortage, India was forced to import food in greater amount.
- Two wars, one with China (1962) and another with Pak (1965) and successive drought in years 1965– 1966, led to fall in agriculture output massively. Food prices shot up.
- USA due to India’s stand on Vietnam & India’s denial of accepting an economy policy package – sent inferior quality seeds during shortage of food, under PL-480 Scheme
- The FoodMovement stated in Calcutta in 1959
The factors which have helped to bring about the green revolution are
- Introduction of high yielding varieties of crops.
- Multiple cropping, better irrigation and sufficient supply of fertilizers.
- Use of crop protection measures against disease and pest.
- Transfer of the technology of scientific farming from research farms to village farmers.
- Better arrangements for transporting farm produce from fields to the market.
Introduction of High Yielding Varieties (HYV)
- In 1960s, the average national yield of wheat was very low as compared to the wheat yields of agriculturally advanced countries.
- MS Swaminathan, former Director General of ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) stressed the need for reorientation of the entire breeding programme of tall varieties.
- On the request of Indian breeders Norman E. Borlaug was invited from Mexico in 1963 by the Government of India to assess the possibilities of using dwarf varieties in India.
- Borlaug recommended the feasibility of using semi dwarf wheat of Mexican origin as the agro-climatic condition prevailing in India are similar to Mexico.
- On his recommendation two semi dwarf varieties namely Lerma Rajo and Sonora-64 were chosen and were released for cultivation in irrigated fields.
- These varieties gave very high yield and brought in revolution in wheat production.
- In 1970, Norman E. Borlaug was awarded Nobel prize for “Green Revolution” which also helped India.
Negative Impact of the Green Revolution in India:
Due to the rise in use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers there was a negative effect on the soil and the land such as land degradation.
Bringing Green Revolution in Eastern India (BGREI)
- Green Revolution that turned India from ‘begging bowl’ to leading producer of food-grains.
- BGREI is about binging similar benefits to eastern India that largely remained untouched of the wonder that converted the north-west into a ‘grain bowl’ by creating sustainable agriculture by leveraging advancements in technology.
- BGREI is flagship programme under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY).
- It is intended to address the constraints limiting the productivity of “rice based cropping systems”.
- The BGREI program was announced in the Union Budget, 2010-11.
- BGREI focuses on bringing the second Green Revolution in eastern region, which has rich water resources.
- Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, West Bengal and eastern Uttar Pradesh (Purvanchal) are the seven states.
- Operation Flood was started by National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) in 1970s.
- The objective of this programme was to create a nationwide milk grid. The result was that India became the largest producer of Milk and Milk Products.
- Operation flood is called White Revolution of India.
- Gujarat-based co-operation “Anand Milk Union Limited” (Amul) was the engine behind the success of the programme.
- Amul was founded by Tribhuvandas Patel and Verghese Kurien was the chairman of NDDB.
- Dr. Verghese Kurien is considered the architect of Operation Flood or Father of White Revolution .
List of Revolution:
Black Revolution Related with Petroleum Production
Blue Revolution Related with Fish Production
Brown Revolution Related with Leather, Cocoa
Golden Fibre Revolution Related with Jute Production
Golden Revolution Related with Overall Horticulture, Honey, Fruit Production
Green Revolution Related with Agriculture Production
Grey Revolution Related with Fertilizers
Pink Revolution Related with Onions, Prawn
Red Revolution Related with Meat, Tomato Production
Evergreen Revolution Intended for overall agriculture production growth
Round Revolution Related with Potato Production Silver
Fibre Revolution Related with Cotton Production
Silver Revolution Related with Egg Production White
Revolution Related with Dairy, Milk Production
Yellow Revolution Related with Oil Seed Production